Learning about Agriculture: 2. The Tagged Beast – Beef

The beef industry has been under scrutiny in the last few years, one example being due to the continuing increase in climate awareness resulting in diet changes towards veganism. Cattle are responsible for the greatest global emissions among livestock with beef the most as compared to dairy. So how is all this emission produced?[i]

Food is broken down by both enzymes and microbes in the ruminant gut.  The enzymatic metabolism produces hydrogen gas as a byproduct which is used to form either VFA (energy source) or by the bacteria to produce methane. Changes in diet can change methane emissions which is why the pressure on the beef market to adapt has led to exciting ideas such as that of adding seaweed to cattle diet.  It was found that adding just a little of the algae Asparagopsis taxiformis to their diet reduced methane production by up to 95% – consideration needs to be taken as current studies are in vitro.  For me this was such an incredible find as usually cattle get such negative press regarding methane emissions but now, with this insight, hopefully things will change.  I mean, it’s a long way away from being mass produced and widely available to farmers but there is hope.

Another hit to the UK beef market was due to a new disease outbreak in the 80s which led to widespread culling of cattle and distrust in the beef market.  In 1995, UK beef exports reached over £6oo million but by 1998, it had fallen to just £16 million[ii]. The disease commonly known as ‘Mad Cow Disease’ or Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by an accumulation of prions – which are misfolded proteins, in the brain and spinal cord.  The most common signs were – changes in temperament, tremors, excessive licking[iii]. At this point in time, it was common to feed cattle a meat-and-bone meal in order to increase their protein intake. This means that cattle were eating the remains of their own species.  This infected meal was how BSE was transmitted throughout the UK.

It took four years from the first case for this practice to be banned in the UK but the damage was done. The public was told that beef was safe to eat but 5 years later the first zoonotic case of BSE occurred, which caused a variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD) resulting in a total of 144 deaths in the UK with the average age at death being 28. The young ages of death may be due to a higher consumption of infected meat but it is still unclear.  The incubation period is thought to be 13 years after which psychiatric symptoms develop then ataxia and dementia[iv].  Currently, there is no treatment available for prionic diseases.

It wasn’t just beef economy that suffered, as new legislations were introduced to improve traceability of cattle movements.  Passports were, and still are, issued to everycattle on the holding which must be updated each time, individually, even if the cattle are moved from one holding to another owned by the same farmer[v].  If you don’t have a passport, a source of income becomes difficult as you cannot move the animals from your land during its life and it cannot go into the food chain – which would be a major issue for beef producers[vi].  You may think that farmers can get away with not having passports or not updating them as who’s going to check a couple of boxes full of passports thoroughly? Well, there are inspections and is there are major issues then movement restrictions may be placed on the animals, and payment reductions from subsidy claims.

Side tracking a little, I wanted to know more about what I had heard at home – a subsidy called Single Farm Payments.  This name was actually changed a few years ago to become the ‘Basic Payment Scheme’ which is an income support available to farmers [vii].  Farming is a volatile business due to factors ranging from weather to slow price responsiveness of demand and supply where long term financial complication for the producer. In order to help small farms which supply us with something that we cannot live without – food, subsidies are granted.In Wales 56% of farms made a loss or would have without this vital support[viii].  That is a huge percentage to comprehend but it is a subsidy that must be continued in order to have a stable supply chain and affordable food. Without it, there would be fewer small farms, and from what I can image, there would probably be more intensive farming.  On the other hand, food production could be reduced resulting in increased food imports.

The subsidy is allocated by hectares and in Wales the rate is between 103.24-125.65 euros per hectare[ix]. In 2016, Wales paid out £224.0 million in BPS but has a gross value added of £457 million[x], which is over double and which is pretty good coming from investing in something that doesn’t make much profit. Its rather similar to what’s happening right now in the UK.  The government has introduced many new schemes to protect people and companies during this recession – which is causing government debt, but will hopefully stop the country falling into a depression. My knowledge in economics is non-existent but in a few years when we begin/have recovered from the effects of COVID-19 I would like to try to understand the stance that the government is taking right now in order to avoid problems in the future.

Back to the point, for cattle, the disease has an incubation period of an average of 4-5 years which means that cattle will show no early symptoms and as it is diagnosed through the observation of clinical symptoms, only cases in the later-stage are detected.[xi]Even today, there are no tests available to detect BSE in live cases before onset of symptoms.

So what happened to the infected cattle? They were culled – there is no treatment available for BSE, and even if there was keeping farmed animals is very different from pets. You can pet sit your pet and care for it until it dies, with insurance to cover vet costs, but for farm animals, unfortunately, the only option is to cull. Over 200,000 cattle were slaughtered in the UK due to BSE[xii], not all from confirmed bases but as a precautionary measure and so there was a compulsory cull of cattle born between October 1990 and june 1993x.

Growing up on a farm there is a lot of agricultural terminology flying around but until this blog I realized that I was pretty clueless even in that.  I thought that a bull was just any male but it’s a male which breeds, as compared to a castrated male – a steer.  And its not just basic terminology that had me baffled – what on earth are all the different types of herds?!

Suckler bred herd is from what I’ve gathered, ‘beef specific herds’ where the mothers are not milked and so they are able to suckle. Dairy bred is where calves are separated from the mother and fed using artificial milk (this is a smell that I SOOO miss. Monologue moment = I remember my dad mixing the powder with warm water and I can just remember the smell, like there’s a bucket of the artificial milk right in front of my nose right now.  A thick, sickly sweet smell – lovely.) since the mother is being milked.

I love calves. They’re just so cute.  When I was younger I used to climb into the individual pens to be with them.  I can’t remember exactly, but I’m pretty sure that our calving season was during the late winter or early spring.  There is so much to consider in terms of calving season not just ‘introduce a bull at this time to get calves at this time’.  For heifers its important that they are the correct liveweight etc as they are more prone to difficulties while calving and so measures need to be taken to reduce both difficulties and mortality.  These include mating with bulls that have good Estimated Breeding Values (EBV) for example, one of the traits include gestation length. A shorter times period means that the calf will be smaller in size resulting in easier calving.  These traits need to be carefully balances with calving ease and traits that will be good for the herd and farmer, such as eye muscle area EBV[xiii]– a positive value will mean that the offspring will be muscular – which is advantageous for the farmer when selling. I’ll try and learn more about morbidity and mortality during calving in a later blog.

It’s not just the care before calving that needs to be considered. Calving intervals depend on many factors – those with a poor body condition after first calving will have an anoestrous period of 50-60 days, length of suckling will also dictate anoestrous period[xiv].  I think that this is mainly due to the fact that the heifers are not only growing a calf and producing milk but are also still growing themselves. These factors reduce the mating period, which causes concerns over whether the cow will calve next season.

A finishing herd is the stage prior to slaughter which means that it’s where the cattle gain a sudden increase in weight which can range from 12 months (intensive) to over 20 months (extensive).  I think we had an average herd size for dairy when we were in production and now, even though they’re not our sheep and cattle, there are animals in the fields right now and so I don’t agree with the intensive 12 systems where they are fed on concentrates instead of grazing in order to increase the maximize the liveweight before slaughter.  In this instance, beef seems, and is really, a much harsher type of agriculture as compared to dairy.  You rear to maximize the meat on an animal, year after year, while with dairy you’re with the same herd for much longer…I don’t know, I’m not very good at explaining such things. Saying that, it was interesting to see the typical finishing systems and the weight aims from the different types of herd from MeatPromotion Wales[xv].

A document I read was going on about the different meat that comes from beef cattle and even though since going to University I have seriously expanded my cooking repertoire if you asked me from which area a ‘hock’ or ‘brisket’ came from and what is it best used for, I’d look pretty confused.  Maybe that should be added to my growing list of ‘Things I should know but don’t’.  It had an easy guide to fat assessment – which would have been helpful a few years ago when I was in Wales YFC. From the guide you could evaluate how much fat was on the animal which would indicate price at slaughter[xvi]from the EUROP classification grid. Lean and muscular cattle result in higher prices as compared to emaciated and obese.

Well, there it is. Took forever and a day and I still feel like I’ve barely skimmed the surface of what I could learn – especially about calving and cattle diseases.  Hopefully I’ll manage to link some to future blog posts and squeeze them in.

Until next time.

[i]Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2018. Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model. Available at: http://www.fao.org/gleam/results/en/

[ii]DEFRA. 2014. Detailed figures on the value and volume of UK imports and exports of food, feed and drink by indigeneity, degree of processing and commodity type, from 1988.

[iii]John W. Willesmith for the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1998. Manual on bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

[iv]European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. 2017. Facts about variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease.  Available at: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/vcjd/facts

[v]Government Legislation. 1996. The Cattle Passports Order 1996. Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/1996/1686/body/made

[vi]British Cattle Movements Service. 2014. Cattle Passports: What to do if problems arise.  Available at: https://www.gov.uk/guidance/cattle-passports-what-to-do-if-problems-arise

[vii]European Commission. 2019. CAP explained – direct payments for farmers 2015-2020.Available at: https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/541f0184-759e-11e7-b2f2-01aa75ed71a1

[viii]Welsh Government. 2019. Statistical First Release Farm Incomes in Wales, April 2018 to March 2019.

[ix]J. Clark. For Townsend Chartered Surveyors [date unknown] Welsh BPS Entitlements User Guide.Available at:  https://townsendcharteredsurveyors.co.uk/farm-quota/entitlements/welsh-bps-entitlements-user-guide/

[x]Welsh Government. [date unknown] Agriculture in Wales, 2019.

[xi]WHO. 2002. Understanding the BSE threat.

[xii]Animal & Plant Health Agency. 2019. Cattle: TSE surveillance statistics, general statistics on BSE cases in Great Britain.

[xiii]Unknown author and date. Charolais Breedplan – understanding EBVs, selection indexes and accuracy.Available at: http://abri.une.edu.au/online/pages/understanding_ebvs_char.htm

[xiv]NADIS Animal Health Skills. 2009. Beef Herd Fertility 2.

[xv]Meat Promotion Wales. 2014. Beef finishing systems – options for beef farms in Wales.

[xvi]Meat Promotion Wales [date unknown] Beef producers’ handbook “from gate to plate”.

The Rowing Club Journal: Novice Edition, 2

Semester 1 has flown by and now it’s time to look forward to the next which is bound to be busier.  The Christmas workouts that they’ve given us have not been easy and I’m finding it difficult to row by myself – it’s just easier when you’re rowing in a line, going at the same rate as the rest of the team.

Since I have a placement within community pharmacy the first week back I won’t be able to go to training and so I’ve signed up to Puregym at Cardiff Queen Street. It’s such a nice gym and a good one to be a nosy parker at. I usually split my time between ERGs and the treadmill and since some of the treadmills face the ERGs its quite enlightening watching other. So many have poor technique – this coming from someone who’s done a total of 3 months of occasional rowing. Hunched over and swinging the handle over their knees each time as they complete sessions at a fast rate – but with poorer splits than I.  The restraint it took not to barge in and stop them.

The first ERG session back at 6:30am comprised of 2x20min sessions with only 2 minutes rest.  My splits were awful but I count it was a win since I managed to last the whole session. I can never seem to complete 20 minute sessions by myself in the gym – I get bored, by backside starts hurting from the uncomfortable plastic seats, or I start feeling like I’m dying.

My progress is improving at a snail’s pace and barely managed to scape off a couple of seconds out of my 2Km.  to be fair, I could have put a bit more energy into it but they had us do a 250m sprint right after at a rate of 35+.  I have never gone above rate 28 before. So obviously, I didn’t manage the 35 this time either, but managed a slow 32 and ripped the skin between my thumb and forefinger. The joys.

25/01 – Cycled down to the Bay under a steel coloured sky and was half hoping that they would cancel with the drizzle setting in and the water looking particularly choppy but no such luck. The last time I was out on the water we got quite a bit of rowing in and I was hoping that it would be the same this session, but this time we focused on technique. My hips locked and my hands and feet froze and the fact that we had to carry the dripping boat back above our heads didn’t help with the hypothermia that was quickly gripping me.  I must have looked it as well as one of our coaches, noticing my clattering teeth and involuntary shivers that wracked me, asked me if I had any spare clothes with me and that I didn’t need to help with getting the little speedboat in so I could go inside. I never take spare clothes with me, and this one instance I wish that I had.  The thin splash jacket (that cost me an arm and a leg) was doing nothing to keep out the biting wind.

I had hoped that I would be able to compete in at least one race this term but rowing is turning out to be quite expensive.  I would have needed to pay a top-up membership, a British Rowing racing membership, and pay for the race and transport fee.  Oh, and lets not forget the pricey kit that I bought last term, and the gym membership that I now had to start. One word of advice – ask about additional costs before joining ANY society.  It may narrow down your options if you’re like me and want to try everything.

Completed my first (ish) 5km.  I mean, we have done a few in the Tuesday morning sessions while doing our 2×20 minute sessions but they weren’t taking our splits and so it wasn’t a race. I didn’t do too bad, gaining a split of 2.28 and so it’s a definite win for me.  I was the last to finish (as usual) but I felt powerful after finishing, even though I must have looked incredibly weak with sweat dripping down my face, gasping for oxygen.

Evening ERGs have been moved down to the Bay and so it was a little dark going there and back.  As usual I finished my 6x500m sprints way after everyone else but it is nice to cycle there and back, giving me a break from work.  I did however, for the first time in years, fall off my bike.  Tried to mount the pavement and the bike slid sending me sprawling.  Scraped my chin quite badly and possibly bruised my ribs and cried all the way back. We all need one stupid accident to happen to us during our Uni life.  I guess that was mine.

Everything has been cancelled due to COVID-19.  

It has been an extraordinary year so far and have gained so much confidence in myself. My parents thought me foolish for trying out for rowing, believing that I was too weak and even though I didn’t have the opportunity to compete I have proved to myself that I can do it – maybe not to the same standard as the rest of the team but at least I tried and didn’t quit.

My only regret is that they didn’t have just a ‘casual’ team – it’s all about competitions and races which excludes many from even trying out a new sport.  It would have been wonderful to be out in the crisp weekend mornings, rowing on the Taff, and getting to know the team.

First Year Pharmacy Course Modules

First year is finally over and so, here I am, giving those of you who are thinking about applying to a pharmacy course, or have already applied, a little insight into life as a first year pharmacy student.


This is a non-examinable module that must be passed in order to progress to the second year and consists of calculations and a placement.

  • Calculations

A few workshops which include homework, and then a test at the beginning of December. The two books recommended are ‘Practical Pharmaceutical Calculations’ by Bonner & Wright; and ‘Introduction to Pharmaceutical Calculations’ by Rees, Smith, & Watson. Before you think, that’s quite a lot to get through if we only get ~4 workshops, well, you only go through the first few chapters in your first year. It’s not too bad but make sure you revise and fully understand how to work through problems.

  • Placements

We were the first year to undergo placements at Cardiff and Vale Hospitals and I’m afraid to say we were misled on what we would be doing. We were under the impression that we were shadowing a pharmacist for 2 hours every 3 weeks for 9 sessions. As quite a few of us had experience within community pharmacy, this would have been an incredible opportunity to become familiar with hospital prescriptions, common drugs, etc. 

However, this was not the case.

The staff were unsure of what we were supposed to be doing and so in pairs, we would sit in an elderly care ward for two hours talking to the patients. The patients were reluctant to speak with us leading to long awkward pauses in dragging conversations. This was of no fault of their own – our placements had been scheduled to that we would see patients immediately after their lunch and would cut across visiting hours. Most patients just wanted to rest, sleep, or have some peace and quiet.

At the end of each placement we had to you complete a reflection page on a site called ‘Mahara’. The reflection was based on what you had learned that session – talking to patients does not constitute as ‘learning’ which meant that we had to be ‘imaginative’ in our reflections. Each short reflection must also linked to the skills used, e.g. ‘Talking to a patient who had experienced a fall which had shaken their confidence’ This page could be linked to actively listens, provides clear and accurate information to patients, and exhibits suitable levels of confidence when communicating.

An example of a reflection:

Click to access example_records_for_revalidation_for_pharmacy_professionals.pdf

Tip – complete a Mahara entry straight after each placement otherwise a) the sessions will blur into one and you’ll have forgotten what you did and b) you’ll spend three days doing Mahara right before the deadline. Don’t put yourself through it. Just don’t.


This is quite a ‘waffly’ module which gives on overview of the drug development process. The January exam contributes to 80% of module grade, and the other 20% comes from a presentation on a plant which has medicinal properties. Our assigned plant was ‘Rawolfina serpentina’.  The presentation is delivered in front of the whole year and considering this fact, it was marked quite harshly. 

* Don’t forget about the practical that you did in this module – it is examinable material!

https://bestpractice.bmj.com/topics/en-gb/337 describes paracetamol overdose which is covered in the module. The paracetamol overwose workshop was fun since the lecturers had set up a hospital bed with one of the taking robot dummies which would suddenly start groaning and seizing.


This module was probably my favourite as made me feel like as had finally enrolled on a pharmacy course. The main part of this module of the RTS workshops (Responding to Symptoms). In the first year there is an RTS session roughly every two weeks which focuses on OTC conditions and treatments. To get the most out of the workshop you will need to do some pre-reading, which is just to read (+ learn if you haven’t had any experience in community) a chapter from Rutter (2017) Community Pharmacy: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment. This is a great book and is available as an ebook from Cardiff University Library.

At the end of each workshop you will work in pairs or threes to complete OSCE style questions – one patient, one pharmacist and one marker.

Something that I liked about the workshops is that if you speak Welsh, they will place you on a table with other Welsh speaking students. Arriving in Cardiff I thought that I would be speaking Welsh everyday like I did at home, but I found that very little Welsh was spoken. When you go shopping, the person at the till usually doesn’t speak welsh, and very few of your lecturers do (which was a big change from secondary school where all my teachers spoke Welsh). Therefore, these workshops were a lovely way to feel at home.

Close to the end of the year you will have a workshop led by OSCE actors. Seeing a ‘Communication’ workshop in my timetable filled me with dread and thought that it would be a waste of time. That workshop was one of the most important workshops that I have been to. It is held after the mock OSCE and they will pick up things that students did during the mock.  For example, they showed how we knocked on the door, walked in, head down, sat down, then introduced ourselves (guilty). It looked hilarious when they acted out what we did and they gave us lots of tips of how to speak to patients. The actual OSCE was nice and a bit more realistic as compared to the workshops. In the workshops you get a set of symptoms, you diagnose and treat. Community pharmacy doesn’t work like that – you get patients asking for a certain medication, or they want to know which one is the best, therefore you need to know the effectiveness of medications.

Top tip: MAKE NOTECARDS. I rarely used notecards in A level, but in this particular module it’s a great way to test your self on the treatments and referral criteria for OTC conditions.

  • Clinical Knowledge Summaries (NICE)
  • ‘Community Pharmacy: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment’ is the go-to book for this unit. Everything you need to know is in it.
  • Non-prescription Medicines by Nathan, A. 2010. I didn’t know about this book until recently, and by that I mean after the exam…I love know how medications work not just ‘this is the condition and this is the drug used to treat it’ and the book explains how the drug acts within the body to target that condition.

The ‘POP’ classes are useful which gives you an introduction to dispensing such as how to check the legality of a prescription, and how to label. However, for those of you who are planning on doing a community pharmacy placement in the summer, in reality, dispensing is quite different.

The exam was quite straightforward, especially since I had experience within community pharmacy. I always go into an exam expecting the worse and so had expected scenarios where patients had a long list of medications that they’re on with multiple interactions, but in fact, only a few were on other medications and they were also quite obvious ones.


This is the module that will probably make you re-think why you’re on a pharmacy course. The practicals involve making and spreading agar plates, looking at the type of bacteria growing etc. and it just doesn’t feel like what you signed up for.

The first assessment you will have in the MPharm course is in this module. The assessment is released in three parts and so I suggest you do them as soon as you get them, other wise you’ll find yourself trying to do it the week before and finding out that its actually not that easy. It is a series of questions, and each has a word limit. I found this difficult as 25 words is not enough to answer a question. 

  • Oxford Handbook of Infections Diseases and Microbiology, Chapter 2, Antibiotics.

For the first year you don’t need to know the names of most drugs (which is great as in one of the first microbiology lectures there’s a few slides with just names of antibiotics and you’re a bit like ‘do I need to know this?’). However, you do need to know the names of antivirals and antifungals.

Towards the end of the module you are taught Glycolysis + Krebs Cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation in more detail which is quite interesting. This leads to my next point – there is a lot of detail in the module which needs to be learned for the multiple choice exam and it can make you feel annoyed as maybe one MCQ will come up on e.g. the whole of glycolysis and Krebs which took you a whole day to learn.


This was another of my favourites as it gives a more in-depth look that the human body.

The module is graded through an exam and essay. I always expect the worse and so I thought that they’d give us something really sciency as an essay topic but its quite nice and vague e.g. healthy eating, smoking, etc. They also give you PLENTY of time to write the essay with about a month and a half over Christmas for the first draft, and a month for the second draft.

Useful books and website which apply to all units:

Unit 1 is self taught and covers basic principles such as the position of the body.

Unit 2 – Nervous, Integument, and Skeletal System. Some of the NS parts have been covered in A Level such as the action potential. This is one of the heaviest units, as you come across so many terms that you’ve never heard of before. This means that it will take you ages to learn and so I’ve gathered a few things that might help.

  • Cranial Nerves – you need to remember their names and a little about them. I struggled to remember the order so I made a sort of story/sequence in my head.

I’d point to my nose (olfactory), then eyes (optic) then bridge of my nose (oculomotor), ear (trochlear). Now here’s the story. I imagine I’m walking down the street in a beautiful low cut dress which shows of a beautiful necklace which has three gemstones in it (trigeminal). Someone notices the expensive gems and they attempt to abduct me (abducens). I struggle and I get punched in the face (facial) which causes my hearing to go all skew iff (vestibulocochlear). I retaliate hitting them in the chin, causing them to bite their own tongue (glossopharyngeal) and they start choking (vagus). They fall to the ground, landing on their back (spinal accessory) and I walk away, not before I stick my tongue out at them (hypoglossal) like the mature adult I am.

For whether or not they are sensory/motor/both, our lecturer used the following sentence – some say marry money, but my brother says big brains matter most.



Unit 3 – Cardiovascular and Respiratory introduces some complex pathways such as intracellular signaling which comes up in a few different modules and units and so I’d recommend spending some time to learn the basics (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_messenger_system).

It covers topics such as blood pressure, control of cardiac contraction (which I found very complicated and did not learn. Inotropy, chronotrophy, and lusitropy mechanisms involve secondary messengers), cardiac action potentials, haemostasis, gas exchange.


For both unit 2 & 3 I’d recommend trying to read the chapter the night before just so you can begin to get your head around it.

Unit 4: GI system was quite a new unit for all of us as only digestion is covered in A level. It doesn’t go into that much detail so it’s a relatively short unit.

Unit 5: Immune System. This was another difficult one and the lecturer may be unaware of how little immunology we had done previously. Some parts are quite nice such as the cells involved in immune responses but again has quite a few new terminology that you need to grasp. I remember sitting in the lecture about the classical complement pathway and none of us had any idea what was going on. The lecture kept saying different variation of numbers and letters such as C4b2a and how that is the C3 convertase which forms the C5 convertase C4b2b3b. You could feel the confusion in the room and everyone was looking at each other wondering if they were the only one that didn’t understand. They weren’t. However, if you make a poster flow chart the complement system becomes much easier to understand and learn.

Unit 6: Endocrine – a very interesting unit which covers things like the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and insulin/glucagon.

Unit 7: Kidney and Urinary system– short unit which mostly recaps A level stuff.

Unit 8: Reproductive Hormones – again covers A level work.

This exam was quite nice and was composed of MCQs and eight 5 mark questions. I had expected the long answer questions to be very scientific such as ‘describe muscle contraction’ where I had to give all this terminology, but it was quite nice.


For this module I would recommend you to bring your A Level notes with you to University as it covers many of the same concepts including organic reactions, acidity, kinetics, and isomerism. Towards the end of the year they organize workshops which give you a chance to work though exam style questions. I found them very useful but in the end the exam was still very difficult.


  • They print off handouts – buying a printer was useless as I could just go to the library to get my notes printed.
  • Exams are different to A Level – most are multiple choice and the questions are not designed to trick you. They will be straightforward such as ‘Describe…’
  • I typed up my notes and expended on some concepts that I didn’t understand. I highly recommend making your own notes, even if it is very time consuming as at the end of the year you will have a 40 page (back to back) display folder of PH1124 notes to study instead of ~2 lever arch files worth of handouts.
  • I have uploaded my flashcards for PH1124 under the name MTFarm on Quizlet (MPharm1).
  • No past papers (with the exception of PH1125) which means that you may be going into your exam blind.

Hope it helps.